Part of the IB subject group 5, Mathematics HL is a course for students with a good background in mathematics and strong analytical and technical skills.
Some students will be expecting to include mathematics in their university studies, either as a subject in its own right or within courses such as physics, engineering and technology.
The course is also for students who have a strong interest in mathematics and enjoy meeting its challenges
Topic 1: Algebra
Topic 2: Functions and Equations
Topic 3: Circular Functions and Geometry
Topic 4: Vectors
Topic 5: Statistics and Probability
Topic 6: Calculus
Option A: Statistics and Probability (HL)
Option B: Sets, Relations and Groups (HL)
Option C: Calculus (HL)
Option D: Discrete Mathematics (HL)
Chemistry is an experimental science that combines academic study with the acquisition of practical and investigational skills. Chemical principles underpin both the physical environment in which we live and all biological systems. Chemistry is often a prerequisite for many other courses in higher education, such as medicine, biological science and environmental science.
1. Stoichiometric relationships
2. Atomic structure
4. Chemical bonding and structure
6. Chemical kinetics
8. Acids and bases
9. Redox processes
11.Measurement and data processing
Additional higher level (AHL)
13.The periodic table—the transition metals
14.Chemical bonding and structure
18.Acids and bases
21.Measurement and analysis
Option (Choice of one out of four)
D. Medicinal chemistry
Physics is the most fundamental of the experimental sciences, as it seeks to explain the universe itself, from the very smallest particles to the vast distances between galaxies. Despite the exciting and extraordinary development of ideas throughout the history of physics, observations remain essential to the very core of the subject. Models are developed to try to understand observations, and these themselves can become theories that attempt to explain the observations. Besides helping us better understand the natural world, physics gives us the ability to alter our environments. This raises the issue of the impact of physics on society, the moral and ethical dilemmas, and the social, economic and environmental implications of the work of physicists.
By studying physics students should become aware of how scientists work and communicate with each other. While the scientific method may take on a wide variety of forms, it is the emphasis on a practical approach through experimental work that characterizes the subject.
Teachers provide students with opportunities to develop manipulative skills, design investigations, collect data, analyze results and evaluate and communicate their findings.
Topic 1: Measurement and uncertainties
Topic 2: Mechanics
Topic 3: Thermal physics
Topic 4: Waves
Topic 5: Electricity and magnetism
Topic 6: Circular motion and gravitation
Topic 7: Atomic, nuclear and particle physics
Topic 8: Energy production
By studying biology in the DP students should become aware of how scientists work and communicate with each other. While the scientific method may take on a wide variety of forms, it is the emphasis on a practical approach through experimental work that characterizes the sciences. Teachers provide students with opportunities to design investigations, collect data, develop manipulative skills, analyze results, collaborate with peers and evaluate and communicate their findings.
1. Cell biology
2. Molecular biology
5. Evolution and biodiversity
6. Human physiology
Additional higher level
7. Nucleic acids
8. Metabolism, cell respiration and photosynthesis
9. Plant biology
10.Genetics and evolution
Option (Choice of one out of four)
A. Neurobiology and behavior
B. Biotechnology and bioinformatics
C. Ecology and conservation
D. Human physiology
The IB Diploma Programme language A: literature course develops understanding of the techniques involved in literary criticism and promotes the ability to form independent literary judgments. In language A: literature, the formal analysis of texts and wide coverage of a variety of literature—both in the language of the subject and in translated texts from other cultural domains—is combined with a study of the way literary conventions shape responses to texts.
Students completing this course will have a thorough knowledge of a range of texts and an understanding of other cultural perspectives. They will also have developed skills of analysis and the ability to support an argument in clearly expressed writing, sometimes at significant length. This course will enable them to succeed in a wide range of university courses, particularly in literature but also in subjects such as philosophy, law and language.
The IB Diploma Programme Economics course forms part of group 3 - individuals and societies.
The study of economics is essentially about dealing with scarcity, resource allocation and the methods and processes by which choices are made in the satisfaction of human wants. As a dynamic social science, economics uses scientific methodologies that include quantitative and qualitative elements.
The course emphasizes the economic theories of microeconomics, which deal with economic variables affecting individuals, firms and markets, and the economic theories of macroeconomics, which deal with economic variables affecting countries, governments and societies. These economic theories are not to be studied in a vacuum—rather, they are to be applied to real-world issues. Prominent among these issues are fluctuations in economic activity, international trade, economic development and environmental sustainability.
The ethical dimensions involved in the application of economic theories and policies permeate throughout the economics course as students are required to consider and reflect on human end-goals and values.
The economics course encourages students to develop international perspectives, fosters a concern for global issues, and raises students’ awareness of their own responsibilities at a local, national and international level. The course also seeks to develop values and attitudes that will enable students to achieve a degree of personal commitment in trying to resolve these issues, appreciating our shared responsibility as citizens of an increasingly interdependent world.
At both standard level and higher level, candidates are required to study four topics: microeconomics, macroeconomics, international economics and development economics with some sub-topics within these reserved solely for higher level. These sections are assessed by two examinations at standard level and three examinations at higher level.
In addition to the examinations, candidates must submit an internal assessment. Both standard level and higher level economics students must produce a portfolio of three commentaries based on articles from published news media.
The extended essay is a compulsory, externally assessed piece of independent research into a topic chosen by the student and presented as a formal piece of academic writing. The extended essay is intended to promote high-level research and writing skills, intellectual discovery and creativity while engaging students in personal research. This leads to a major piece of formally presented, structured writing of up to 4,000 words in which ideas and findings are communicated in a reasoned, coherent and appropriate manner.
Students are guided through the process of research and writing by an assigned supervisor (a teacher in the school). All students undertake three mandatory reflection sessions with their supervisor, including a short interview, or viva voce, following the completion of the extended essay.
Extended essay topics may be chosen from a list of approved DP subjects—normally one of the student’s six chosen subjects for the IB diploma or the world studies option. World studies provides students with the opportunity to carry out an in-depth interdisciplinary study of an issue of contemporary global significance, using two IB disciplines.
Overview of the extended essay process:
The research process
1. Choose the approved DP subject.
2. Choose a topic.
3. Undertake some preparatory reading.
4. Formulate a well-focused research question.
5. Plan the research and writing process.
6. Plan a structure (outline headings) for the essay. This may change as the research develops.
7. Carry out the research.
Writing and formal presentation
The required elements of the final work to be submitted are as follows.
• Title page
• Contents page
• Body of the essay
• References and bibliography
The upper limit of 4,000 words includes the introduction, body, conclusion and any quotations.
As part of the supervision process, students undertake three mandatory reflection sessions with their supervisor. These sessions form part of the formal assessment of the extended essay and research process. The purpose of these sessions is to provide an opportunity for students to reflect on their engagement with the research process and is intended to help students consider the effectiveness of their choices, re-examine their ideas and decide on whether changes are needed. The final reflection session is the viva voce.
The viva voce is a short interview (10–15 minutes) between the student and the supervisor, and is a mandatory conclusion to the process. The viva voce serves as:
• a check on plagiarism and malpractice in general
• an opportunity to reflect on successes and difficulties
• an opportunity to reflect on what has been learned
• an aid to the supervisor’s report.
• review what has already been written about the topic
• formulate a clear research question
• offer a concrete description of the methods used to investigate the question
• generate reasoned interpretations and conclusions based on their reading and independent research in order to answer the question
• reflect on what has been learned throughout the research and writing process.